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VIU Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and PunctuationCapital Letters:We must use Capital letters in the following situations:1. The first word of every sentence2. The first word of every direct quotationHe said, “We’ve jogged two miles.”“We’ve jogged two miles,” he said, “and I feel great.” (The and is not capitalized becauseit does not begin a new sentence.).“We’ve jogged two miles,” he said. “It makes me feel great.”(It is capitalized because it begins a new sentence.)3. The first, last, and very important word/s in a titleI’ve been reading Bulfinch’s The Age of Fable.4. Proper names of people, places, languages, races and nationalitiesGrandfather BrownUgandaJapanEnglishOrientalIndian5. A title of relationship if it takes the place of the person’s name, but not otherwiseIf my (or similar word) is in front of the word, a capital is not used.I think Mother wrote to her.I think my mother wrote to her.6. Names of particular people or things, but not general onesI spoke to Professor Smith.I spoke to the professor.7. Names of months, days of the week, and special days, but not the seasonsFebruaryWednesdayFirst of JulyThanksgivingbutspringsummerGrammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 1

Now it’s your turn. Add capital letters where necessary.Exercise 11. I discussed the matter with my professor.2. We were studying Robert Frost’s poem “The death of the hired man”.3. All grade 12 students take history and english.4. Usually college classes begin the day after labour day.5. You know, dad, I haven’t had the car all week.6. He shouted, “what’s happening?”7. The doctor sent her to the hospital last wednesday.8. After graduating from high school, he went to Vancouver island university.9. My aunt is president of her club this fall.10. My cousin plays hockey for simon fraser university.Exercise 21. The sugar maple and the hemlock are both native to canada.2. She graduated from vancouver island university and now is attending ubc3. My mother likes plane travel, but dad would rather drive.4. Last spring we took a trip through the rocky mountains.5. His mother bakes the best cookies, but aunt angela makes the best pies.6. We’re studying about world war II in history now.7. I’ve always liked literature and have decided to make it my major.8. Next semester I’m going to take psychology 112, history 112, and English 200; then the followingsemester I’ll take math and physics.9. The team from pearson college was on our campus last weekend.10. “I’d rather be a big duck in a little pond,” she said, “than a little duck in a big pond.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 2

Answers:Exercise 11.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.Correct“The Death of the Hired Man”EnglishLabour DayDadWhat’sWednesdayVancouver Island UniversityCorrectSimon Fraser UniversityExercise 21. Canada2. Vancouver Island University, UBC3. Dad4. Rocky Mountains5. Aunt Angela6. World War7. Correct8. Psychology, History9. Pearson College10. CorrectGrammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 3

Commas1. Use a comma before these joining words when you are constructing a compound sentence.(Hint: Remember the word formed downward by the first letters of each joining word.)FANBOYSonoureordrttIn the examples following, underlined spaces indicate that a comma is needed.e.g.I want to go , but you want to stay.He died before she was born , so she never knew him.2. Put a comma between items in a series., wasp ,aThe sting of a beebSoon the students will returnor hornet can cause a severe reaction., the halls will be buzzing , and the studyingwill begin.3. A comma goes after an introductory expression or before an expression that follows the sentencebut is somewhat separated from the rest of the sentence (doesn’t flow easily into the sentence).,I haven’t seen anyone yet.aWellbWhen the time comesc, we will be ready.It’s tiring to go to school all day , isn’t it?4. Put commas around the name of a person spoken to or addressed.ab, bring that into the classroom.I know , Jan , that you are missing your family.Rick5. Put commas around an expression that interrupts the flow of the sentence.aThe facts, therefore , do not support your argument.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 4

bI wish, however , that I could go south for the weekend.6. Put commas around non-essential material.ab, who passed with flying colours , headed to La Cantina.Cannery Row , a novel by John Steinbeck , is a favourite among English instructors.The studentsPractice:Insert commas where they belong:1. Although I liked what you wrote about caring for your pet rat I have a suggestion you might want toconsider.2. Ever since you asked my opinion about the soccer field battle I’ve been mulling the situation overtrying to determine a logical consequence.3. I don’t usually give unsolicited advice but this seems to me to be a special case.4. I wouldn’t ordinarily presume to tell you how to behave but I’m concerned.5. Check for accuracy spelling and punctuation before sending your e-mail.6. It was Coach Tom who came up with the idea of recruiting players from other schools.7. When returning items that don’t fit please remember to return them within 20 days of your purchase.8. My teacher who was talking to all of us said, “If everyone passes this test we’ll all get a free period.”9. “I didn’t see the falling star ” Jane said “but I sure wish I had.”10. Melissa bought a new graduation dress and she wore it to the graduation ceremony.Answers:1. Although I liked what you wrote about caring for your pet rat, I have a suggestion you might want toconsider.2. Ever since you asked my opinion about the soccer field battle, I’ve been mulling the situation over,trying to determine a logical consequence.3. I don’t usually give unsolicited advice, but this seems to me to be a special case.4. I wouldn’t ordinarily presume to tell you how to behave, but I’m concerned.5. Check for accuracy, spelling, and punctuation before sending your e-mail.6. It was Coach Tom who came up with the idea of recruiting players from other schools.7. When returning items that don’t fit, please remember to return them within 20 days of your purchase.8. My teacher, who was talking to all of us, said, “If everyone passes this test, we’ll all get a freeperiod.”9. “I didn’t see the falling star,” Jane said, “but I sure wish I had.”10. Melissa bought a new graduation dress, and she wore it to the graduation ceremony.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 5

Quotation Marks:Quotation Marks are used:A.to identify the exact words of the speakerB.to set off the titles of short works of writingPunctuation Rules for using Quotation Marks:A.To identify the exact words of the speaker:He screamed, “Get lost!”1.Start the quotation with a capital letter.2.If the quotation is split into 2 parts, the 2nd part does not begin with a capital letter unless itbegins a 2nd sentence.“Would you please,” he said, “just get lost!”“Get lost,” he said. “I’ve had enough.”Note: A comma follows the end of the 1st part of the quotation.A comma precedes the 2nd part of the quotation, unless a new sentence is begun.3.Use quotation marks ( “ ” ) to start and end the quoted part of the sentence.As the wise one always says, “Love heals all problems.”4.Commas, periods, question marks, exclamation points that come at the end of a quotationshould go inside the quotation marks.Carol questioned, “Aren’t you coming?”5.B.If the words are not the speaker’s exact words, do not use quotation marks.He said that he was willing to go.He said, “I am willing to go.”Bill told them he could do it.Bill told them, “I can do it.”To set off the titles of short works of writing:Use Quotation Marks- the song, “Isn’t it a Pity?”- the episode of Cheers, “Diane’s Worst Day”- the article, “Does Money Really Count?”Use Underlines- on the album(longer work), All Things Must Pass- the television show, Cheers- the magazine, LifestylesNote: Usually the quotation marks within other quotation marks are reduced to 1 (‘)instead of 2 (“) to distinguish them from one another.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 6

Practice:Insert the quotation marks where needed. Correct any punctuation that may need to be altered.1. He read an article called Finding Answers on the Internet to the group, and then he turned to the class andsaid do you believe that.2. You must listen to her the lawyer shouted. She wrote an article called Legal Practice in B.C. aboutcourts. She knows her stuff.3. Did you really believe that another day of waiting would make it easier to give that speech, asked herfriend. It is still called the hazards of not preparing for public speaking and it is still the most popularspeech in the text called speeches for notoriety.Answers:1. He read an article called “Finding Answers on the Internet” to the group, and then he turned to the classand said, “Do you believe that?”2. “You must listen to her!” the lawyer shouted. “She wrote an article called ‘Legal Practice in B.C.’ aboutcourts. She knows her stuff.”3. “Did you really believe that another day of waiting would make it easier to give that speech?” asked herfriend. “It is still called ‘The Hazards of Not Preparing for Public Speaking’, and it is still the mostpopular speech in the text called Speeches for Notoriety.”Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 7

Semicolons:There are three situations where a semicolon is the best punctuation choice:1. Use a semicolon to join two independent (stand-alone) statements which are closely related. Thestatements should be closely related enough that you could use a FANBOYS word (for, and, nor, but,or, yet, so) instead of a semicolon. My daughter was quite sick; I called the doctor right away.2. Use between independent statements linked with a transitional phrase or word. Put a comma after thetransition word or phrase. I am nervous about the test; however, I know I have prepared as well as possible.Gary did not want to leave the party; nevertheless, it was getting very late.Note: If a FANBOYs word (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) connects the two statements, use a commainstead of a semicolon. Gary did not want to leave the party, but it was getting very late.3. Use between items in a series that contains internal punctuation: Strategies for staying healthy include eating well, to ensure proper nutrition; exercising regularly,to maintain heart health; and living a balanced lifestyle, to reduce stress.In the above, the three different examples contain commas as internal punctuation. Without thesemicolons, the reader could have difficulty sorting out the idea groups.Practice:Put in the appropriate semicolons:1. Eating healthy helps you lose weight staying fit keeps you healthy.2. I’ll need to do the following today: take out the trash pay my hydro bill water my plants andshop for groceries.3. My dog hates dog food he loves eating my dinner.4. I hate doing math homework I love doing art homework.5. This summer I’m: going hiking taking a cruise and relaxing!6. I don’t like orange soda I much prefer a cola.7. I got an A on my English assignment I really studied hard.8. I don’t like going to the gym in fact, I cancelled my membership.9. I had to use my brother’s golf clubs I forgot my clubs at home.10. Neither of us can speak French we had to get a translator.11. I live in the city I’m not a rural person.12. The weather forecaster was right it rained all day.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 8

Answers:1. Eating healthy helps you lose weight; staying fit keeps you healthy.2. I’ll need to do the following today: take out the trash; pay my hydro bill; water my plants; and shopfor groceries.3. My dog hates dog food; he loves eating my dinner.4. I hate doing math homework; I love doing art homework.5. This summer I’m: going hiking; taking a cruise; and relaxing!6. I don’t like orange soda; I much prefer a cola.7. I got an A on my English assignment; I really studied hard.8. I don’t like going to the gym; in fact, I cancelled my membership.9. I had to use my brother’s golf clubs; I forgot my clubs at home.10. Neither of us can speak French; we had to get a translator.11. I live in the city; I’m not a rural person.12. The weather forecaster was right; it rained all day.Grammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 9

Colons:1. Use a colon after an independent statement to signal a list: He had several chores to do on Saturday: washing the car, picking up groceries, and paying thebills.Note: If you introduce the list with “including”, “such as”, or “for example”, do not use a colon. He had several jobs to do on Saturday, including washing the car, picking up groceries, andpaying the bills.2. Use a colon to start a quotation that has been formally introduced with a full statement. Consider my father’s advice: “If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.”If the quotation begins with a short expression such as “he said”, then use a comma. My friend said, “You should listen to your father’s advice.”3.Use a colon between independent statements if the second one summarizes or explains the first. The children were whining and fussing: it was well past their bedtime.4. Use a colon after the greeting in a formal letter, to indicate hours and minutes, to show a ratio, orbetween the title and subtitle of a book: Dear Sir: 8:30 a.m. The ratio of adults to children was 3:1. Student Success: How to Thrive at UniversityGrammar and Punctuation Study Guide 3: Capitalization and Punctuation MA/2015Page 10

Practice:Circle the correct answer:1. Which one of these is correct?a) The potion contained: fruit, biscuits and glue.b) The potion contained