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2004 Harris County Flood Control District. Reproduced with permission.Field Guide for BuildingStabilization andShoring TechniquesBIPS 08 / October 2011

Field Guide for BuildingStabilization and Shoring TechniquesBIPS 08 / October 2011

This publication was produced by the Department ofHomeland Security (DHS), Science and TechnologyDirectorate (S&T), Infrastructure Protection and DisasterManagement Division ommendations expressed in this publication are those ofthe authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policyor position of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)or other Federal agencies. The publication of these views byDHS does not confer any individual rights or cause of actionagainst the United States. Users of information in thispublication assume all liability from such use.Hyperlinks to Web sites do not constitute DHS’sendorsement by DHS of the Web site or the information,products, or services contained therein. DHS does notexercise any editorial control over the information on nonDHS Web sites. Users must adhere to any intellectualproperty rights contained in this publication or in material onhyperlinked Web sites.All photographs and illustrations in this document weretaken or created by DHS or a DHS contractor, unlessotherwise noted.

Collapse rescue operations are dangerous, rapidly evolvingefforts focused on finding and extracting trapped andentombed victims, while avoiding harm to the rescuers andfurther harm to the victims. Stabilization of damagedstructures is an integral part of building collapse rescueoperations.Over the past 20 years, first responders and structuralengineers (Structures Specialists)in the Department ofHomeland Security Federal Emergency ManagementAgency (DHS/FEMA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers(USACE) Urban Search & Rescue (US&R) programs havebeen rigorously trained and have gained invaluableexperience at actual building collapse incidents and inbuilding stabilization.The building stabilization state of practice has evolvedbased on experience at disaster responses, full-scale testingof stabilization methods, and the evolving development oftools and techniques to monitor the stability of damagedstructures.Overview of ContentsThis guide is a field reference book for vertical shoring,lateral shoring, and in-situ rapid strengthening and/or repairof damaged building components. This guide refines andexpands on the information provided in the existing US&RStructures Specialist Field Operations Guide (FOG).This guide includes concise information - includingdescriptive graphics – on the current FEMA developed builtin-place shoring systems, newly designed and tested builtin-place shoring systems, the results of the most recenttesting of built-in-place shoring systems, and a system bysystem discussion of the relevant characteristics ofManufactured Shoring and Repair and Strengtheningtechniques that may be able to be adapted to rescueoperations. Also included in this Guide is expandedinformation on Building Size-Up and new Shoring Size-upinformation.Information contained in this guidebook is based onexperience, experimental testing, engineering analysis, andcommon sense. However, all rescue scenarios are uniqueIntroductionBackground

Introductionand the stabilization techniques contained herein must beapplied with judgment, considering the specifics of theoperations underway. In many instances, additional inputfrom a qualified engineer is required.Intended AudienceThis Field Guide has been developed with a number ofdifferent audiences in mind. First Responders: Local agencies responding toinitial/everyday incidents. Engine companies, truckcompanies, police, etc. Special Operations and Technical Rescue Teams:Department based units, companies or teams that havemore specialized training and equipment than the FirstResponders. County and Regional Response Teams: County andregional based teams with specialized training andequipment. State & National Response Teams (FEMA US&R andSUS&R teams): Highly trained, advanced equipment. Disaster Engineers: Trained engineers who mayrespond as a component of any of the above categories.While the highly trained Technical Rescue teams mayalready have the information on the Built-In-Place shoringsystems, this book has added a few newly tested shores(Plywood Laced Post systems) and it is the only placewhere the in-situ Repair and Strengthening techniques arepresented with respect to their performance requirementsand their possible applications in a rescue environment.

This document has been produced by the Department ofHomeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate,Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division.Much of the base content for the Guidebook has beendrawn from the US&R Structures Specialist Field OperationsGuide (FOG), the US&R Shoring Operations Guide (SOG),and the student manuals for the USACE US&R Program’sStructures Specialist I and II classes. These originaldocuments were prepared as resources and training toolsfor the rescue community.Shoring designs included in this Guide build on theestablished shoring designs used in the FEMA UrbanSearch & Rescue system and adds information learned fromexperience in field situations regarding stabilization ofbuildings.AuthorsMichael Barker, PhD, PEProfessor, University of WyomingFEMA/USACE StS InstructorUSACE StS/StS MO-TF-1 (ret)Hollice Stone, PEPresident, Stone Security EngineeringFEMA/USACE StS InstructorUSACE StS/StS CA-TF-1 (ret)David Hammond, SE (ret)Consulting Structural EngineerFEMA/USACE Lead StS InstructorStS CA-TF-3John O’ConnellFDNY Rescue 3 (ret)Task Force Leader NY-TF1 (ret)FEMA Lead Rescue Specialist InstructorIntroductionApproach

IntroductionAcknowledgementsThis document was prepared under contract for DHS S&TIDD.Program Officer:Milagros Kennett, Department of Homeland Security,Science and Technology Directorate, InfrastructureProtection and Disaster Management DivisionProgram Review Committee:Mohammed Ettouney, Weidlinger Associates, Inc.Robert Hall, Engineering InnovationStan Woodson, ERDCBruce Varner, BH Varner & AssociatesTate Jackson, URS Group, Inc.Training and PreparationThe importance of training and preparation cannot beemphasized enough. Search and rescue operations arechaotic and fast-moving with judgment and decisionsneeding to be made rapidly. Arriving on a scene withoutprior training and preparation can be dangerous.

Table of Contents1Stabilization Concepts and Size-up . 61.1 Stabilization: Philosophy, Principles, Characteristics61.1.1 Viable Void Potential . 61.1.2 Structural Hazards . 61.1.3 Risk Management . 71.1.4 Hazard Mitigation Measures . 71.1.4.1 Avoidance . 71.1.4.2 Exposure Time Reduction . 71.1.4.3 Removal . 81.1.4.4 Monitoring . 81.1.4.5 Stabilization . 91.2 Definition of Shoring . 91.3 Definition of Repair and Strengthening.101.4 Definition of Size-up .101.5 Building Size-up .101.5.1 Size-Up Considerations . 111.5.1.1 Victims . 111.5.1.2 Six-Sided Approach to Building Survey . 111.5.1.3 Structure Survey . 111.5.1.4 Collapse Warning Signs . 121.5.2 Hazard Identification . 121.5.2.1 Multi-Story Light Frame Building Hazards 141.5.4.1 Heavy Wall - URM - Buildings - Hazards . 201.5.4.2 Heavy Wall Tilt-Up - Hazards . 221.5.4.3 Heavy Floor Buildings - Hazards . 241.5.4.4 Precast Concrete Buildings - Hazards. 261.5.5 Hazard Identification Summary . 281.5.6 Hazard Assessment . 281.5.7 Hazard Mitigation Planning . 292Vertical Shoring Construction . 312.1 Standard Built-in-Place Shoring .322.1.1 Wood Shoring Design Concepts . 322.2 Vertical Shores: General Information .33DHS Field Guide for Building Stabilization and Shoring 1Techniques

2.3 Class 1 Shores . 432.3.1 T Spot Shore (Vertical/Class 1) . 442.4 Class 2 Shores . 492.4.1 Double T Shore (Vertical Class 2) . 502.4.2 Vertical Shore (Vertical/Class 2) . 542.4.3 2-Post Vertical Shore (Vertical/Class 2) . 582.4.4 Door and Window Shore (Vertical/Class 2) . 622.4.5 Door and Window Shore - Prefabricated . 662.5 Class 3 Shores . 702.5.1 Laced Post Shore (Vertical/Class 3) . 722.5.2 2 x4 Plywood Laced Post (Vertical/Class 3) . 762.5.3 4 x4 Plywood Laced Post (Vertical/Class 3) . 802.5.4 Sloped Floor Shore–Type 2 (Vertical/Class 3) . 842.5.5 Sloped Floor Shore–Type 3 (Vertical/Class 3) . 882.6 Cribbing . 922.6.1 Cribbing (Vertical/Class 3) . 943Lateral Shoring . 983.1 Raker Shores. 993.1.1 Raker Shores: General Information . 1003.1.2 Raker Shores: Multi-Shore Bracing, Backing,Raker Splice and Anchoring . 1043.1.3 Solid Sole Raker (Lateral/Class 3). 1083.1.4 Split Sole Raker (Lateral/Class 3) . 1143.1.5 Flying Raker Shore (Lateral Class 1) . 1183.2 Horizontal Shores . 1223.2.1 Horizontal Shore . 1244Manufactured Shoring . 1284.1.1 Pneumatic Shores . 1304.2 Heavy Duty Vertical Shoring . 1344.3 Manufactured Cribbing. 1364.4 Vertical Post Accessories . 1375Repair and Strengthening Techniques . 1385.1 Introduction . 139DHS Field Guide for Building Stabilization and ShoringTechniques2

5.3 Epoxy Concrete Repairs .1425.4 Steel Jacket Column Repair .144Steel Jacket Joint Repair .1465.5 Column Stability Repair .1485.6 Spray Applied Materials .1505.7 Steel Straps Used to Confine Concrete .1525.8 Protected Entry .1545.9 Protective Barriers .1556Appendix A: Engineering Tables . A-16.1 Wind Pressures on Buildings, psf . A-26.5 Bolts AISC Table . A-66.6 Working Load Values for Nails . A-76.7 Rigging –Design/Working Loads . A-86.8 General Sling Information . A-96.9 Wire Rope Sling Capacities – Flemish Eye . A-106.10 Wire Rope, Chain & Synthetic Sling Capacities . A-116.11 Wire Rope Discard Conditions. A-126.12 Wire Rope Socket Terminations . A-136.13 Wire Rope Clip Installation . A-146.14 Synthetic Sling Information. A-156.15 Hoist Ring Capacities . A-166.16 Wedge Anchor Capacities . A-176.17 Concrete Screw Information . A-186.18 Anchors – Epoxy & Acrylic Adhesives Capacities A-196.19 Hurst Airshore Rescue Strut Capacities . A-206.20 Hurst Airshore Raker System Capacities . A-21DHS Field Guide for Building Stabilization and Shoring 3Techniques

6.21 Paratech Long Shore Strut Capacities . A-226.22 Paratech Long Shore Strut Raker Capacities . A-236.23 Paratech Rescue Strut Capacities . A-24DHS Field Guide for Building Stabilization and ShoringTechniques4

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Stabilization Concepts and Size-up1Stabilization Concepts and Size-up1.1Stabilization: Philosophy, Principles,CharacteristicsThe three primary characteristics of a full or partial buildingcollapse that should be addressed by rescue personnel are: Viable void potential. Structural hazards. Hazard mitigation measures.1.1.1 Viable Void PotentialThe primary focus for search & rescue teams is rescuing livevictims. This means finding and accessing voids in whichlive victims are entombed – viable voids. In assessing thepotential for viable voids, there are two aspects that must beconsidered: the physical potential for voids and the viabilityof any victims in those voids.Void potential is a function of Total energy released (during the initial event and anysecondary events). Structure type and configuration. Collapse patterns. Building contents. Other contributing factors.In addition to the physical pre