Transcription

The Welding Handbook

1.00MaritimeWelding HandbookWelding andRelated Processesfor Repair and MaintenanceOnboard14th edition2nd revisionNotice: All welding is carried out on the welder’s own risk and account. Welding should be executed by a qualified and experiencedwelder and adequate safety measures should always be adhered to. The information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook are basedon general information and knowledge at hand and are believed to be accurate and reliable, but the information and guidelines are notto be taken as a guarantee or warranty for a special purpose. The information and guidelines are provided to the welder solely for hisown consideration, and Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS assumes no legal responsibility or liability for eventual damages and/or lossesshould the information and/or guidelines turn out to be incorrect or un-suitable. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is not liable for any loss ordamages whatsoever and howsoever arising which is due to force majeure, other events beyond the reasonable control of WilhelmsenShips Service AS or events that could not reasonably be foreseen by Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS when this Welding Handbook wasmade. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS is in no event liable for indirect, incidental or consequential damages or losses, including damages for loss of profits, resulting from lack of conformity, including but not limited to loss resulting from goods or software not workingwhen connected to other goods/software or for any related cause thereto. Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS’s liability shall in any eventnot exceed the total purchase price of theWilhelmsen Ships Service AS goods used during the welding operations. These conditionsare automatically accepted by anybody using the information and guidelines in this Welding Handbook.

INTRODUCTION1.00A ship at sea depends upon the knowledge, skills and self-reliance of the crew to carryout necessary maintenance and repair work. One of the important skills required is agood command of modern welding techniques.The purpose of the Welding Handbook for maritime welders is to provide guidancein modern welding and related processes and to provide the welder with a source ofpractical information on the right solution to specific onboard welding problems.Experience gained from user contact and welding training of crewmembers showed thatdocumentation aimed specifically at on board welding solutions was needed. This ledto the development of the first welding handbook for on-board repair and maintenancewelding already the 1950es.This edition of the UNITOR Welding Handbook builds upon all the earlier editions and onWilhelmsen Ships Service’s business activity.Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS enjoys close co-operation with its customers andwould like to thank the many who have taken the effort to contribute with examples ofsuccessful solutions to real life maintenance situations.Unitor’s business activitytraces back to 1905 andthe company NAG withAcetylene production asa basic activity. The firstmaritime deliveries fromthis period were supplyof Acetylene as fuelgas for the guiding lightbeams from numerouslighthouses along thelong and weatherbeaten coast of Norway.The focus changedtowards gas and arc welding techniques when these were developed to usefulproduction and repair methods through the 1930es.A main objective became to develop and maintain a range of welding equipment thatis suitable for onboard welding, backed by a worldwide service network, training anddocumentation.In 1943 the company name was changed to UNITOR. Mergers and increasing activityin the department for sales to ships led to the establishment of this department as aseparate company; Unitor Ships Service AS in 1968.In 2005 the company was bought by Wilh.Wilhelmsen ASA and the brand Unitor is nowincorporated in Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS, a part of Wilhelmsen Maritime ServicesAS, a company in the Wilh. Wilhelmsen Group2

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK1 SAFETY IN WELDING91.002 SOLUTIONS2.01 Introduction & quick guides to processes 352.012.02 Filler material consumption 472.022.03 Metal identification 502.032.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 552.042.05 Problem steels 622.052.06 Stainless steels 652.062.07 Cast iron 782.072.08 Copper and copper alloys 1042.082.09 Aluminium 1122.092.10 Evaluation of welds 1142.103.01 Coated Electrodes 1253.013.02 TIG Welding Rods & Fluxes 1973.023.03 Wires for Wire Welding 2173.033.04 Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes 2413.043.05 Brazing Rods & Fluces 2493.053.06 Cold Repair Compounds 2753.064.01 Electrode welding & gouging 3314.014.02 TIG Welding 3814.024.03 Wire Welding 4034.034.04 Plasma Cutting 4414.044.05 Current Distribution System 4594.055.01 AC/OX cutting, welding, brazing 4655.015.02 Gas Supplies and gas distribution system 5175.023 CONSUMABLES4 ARC WELDING ANDCUTTING PROCESS& EQUIPMENT5 GAS WELDING ANDCUTTING PROCESS &EQUIPMENT5356 MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION6.003

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK1.0041 SAFETY IN WELDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91.011.021.031.04Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .How to use the handbook . . . . . . . . . . .Welding instructions and training . . . .Personal protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.04.01 Arc welding face shields . . . . .1.04.02 Protective goggles . . . . . . . . . .1.04.03 Welder's protective clothing . .101112131418201.05Work site protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.05.01 Welding curtain . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.05.02 Welding blanket . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.05.03 Fire extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . . .222222231.061.07Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.06.01 Welding fumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.06.02 Fume extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . .Safety check list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.07.01 Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.07.02 Work place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.07.03 Hot work procedure . . . . . . . . .1.07.04 Operator protection . . . . . . . . . .24262730303132322 SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.01.01 Quick reference for cutting . . .2.01.02 Quick reference for joining . . .2.01.03 Quick reference for rebuilding,hardfacing and coating . . . . . .2.01.04 Quick reference tocold repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.02 Filler material consumption . . . . . . . . .2.03 Metal identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.04 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel . . . . . . . .2.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.04.02 Unalloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.04.03 Low alloyed steel . . . . . . . . . . . .2.04.04 Heat resistant steel . . . . . . . . . .2.04.05 Low temperature steel . . . . . . .2.04.06 Weathering steel . . . . . . . . . . . .2.05 Problem steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.06 Stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36373841434548535353535354546265652.06.02 Austenitic Stainless Steel . . . .2.06.03 Ferritic Stainless Steel . . . . . . .2.06.04 Martensitic Stainless Steel . . .2.06.05 Duplex Stainless Steel . . . . . . .2.06.06 Clad Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.06.07 Stainless Steel corrosion types2.06.08 Storing and handling ofStainless Steel onboard . . . . . .2.06.09 Grinding/cutting consumables for Stainless Steel . . . . . . . . . . .2.06.10 Unitor Safety Grinder . . . . . . . . .2.07 Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.02 Grey cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.03 White cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.04 Malleable cast iron . . . . . . . . . .2.07.05 Ductile cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.06 High alloy cast iron . . . . . . . . . .2.07.07 Identification of cast iron . . . . .2.07.08 Preparation of thework piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.07.09 Arc welding of cast iron . . . . . .2.07.10 Braze welding of cast iron . . . .2.07.11 Cold repair on cast iron . . . . . .2.08 Copper and copper alloys . . . . . . . . . . .2.08.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.08.02 Brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.08.03 Aluminium brass (Yorcalbro) . .2.08.04 Bronze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.08.05 Nickel bronses (Cunifer) . . . . . .2.09 Aluminium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.10 Evaluation of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.10.01 Typical welding faults . . . . . . . .2.10.02 Inspection of welded joints . . .2.10.03 Crack detection . . . . . . . . . . . . .848795971041041041051061071121141141181233 CONSUMABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1253.01126127128134140148Coated Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.01.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.01.02 Types of electrodes . . . . . . . . . .3.01.03 Storing and re-drying . . . . . . . .3.01.04 Classification and approvals . .3.01.05 Welding positions . . . . . . . . . . .6668697071727475777878798080818283

UNITOR WELDING .01.203.01.213.01.223.01.23GPO-302 NGeneral Purpose ElectrodeFor Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GPR-300HHigh Recovery Electrodefor Mild Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SPECIAL-303 NDouble Coated Electrode forMild and Ship Quality Steel . . .LH-314 NLow Hydrogen Electrode forShip Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . .LHH-314 HHigh Recovery Low HydrogenElectrode for Ship Quality SteelLHV-316 NVertical Down Welding LowHydrogen Electrode forShip Quality Steel . . . . . . . . . . .LHT-318 NElectrode for High TemperatureSteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LHL-319 NElectrode for Low TemperatureSteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LHR-320 NElectrode for Weathering SteelTENSILE-328 NElectrode for Difficult-toWeld Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IMPACT-329 SElectrode for Heat ResistantOverlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WEARMAX-327Electrode for Joining & WearResistant Overlays . . . . . . . . . . .18/8-321 NElectrode for Stainless Steel . .23/14-322 NElectrode for Stainless Steel . .DUPLEX-325 NElectrode for Duplex Steel . . . .PICKLING GELPickling Gel for Stainless SteelNIFE-334 NNickel Iron Electrode forCast Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CKEL-333 NNickel Electrode for Cast IronTINBRO-341Electrode for Copper Alloys . . .ALBRONZE-344Electrode for Copper Alloys . . .ALUMIN-351 NElectrode for Aluminum . . . . . .CH-2-382Electrode for Chamfering . . . . .ACA-384Electrode for Air Carbon ArcGouging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184186188190192194TIG welding rods and fluxes . . . . . . . . .3.02.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.03 IMS-210 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.04 ICROMO-216 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.05 18/8 Mo-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.06 ALUMAG-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.07 IDUPLEX-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.08 ICUNI-30-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.09 IALBRO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.02.10 I-FLUX-238 PF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1971981992002022042062082102122143.03 Wires for Wire Welding . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.02 Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.03 Storage and handling forFlux Cored wires . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.04 GPS-W-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.05 MS-W-201 Selfshield . . . . . . . .3.03.06 Coreshield 8 Selfshield . . . . . . .3.03.07 S 316 M-GF-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.08 S 309 M-GF-222 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.09 Icuni-W-239 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.10 Ialbro-W-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.11 Alumag-W-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.03.12 Abratech-W-230 . . . . . . . . . . . . 244246248Gas Welding Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . .3.04.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.04.02 MS-200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.04.03 ALUMAG-235 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.04.04 Aluflux-234 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.005

UNITOR WELDING HANDBOOK1.0063.05Brazing Rods & Fluxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.02 Bronze-264 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.03 FC-Bronze-261 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.04 FC-Wearbro-262 . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.05 Cast Iron-237 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.06 AG-45-253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.07 AG-60-252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.08 Tin-241 AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.09 Fluxes for Brazing . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.10 Bronze Flux-261 PF . . . . . . . . . .3.05.11 Wearbro Flux-262 PF . . . . . . . . .3.05.12 AG-60/45 Flux-252 PF . . . . . . . . .3.05.13 Albro Flux-263 PF . . . . . . . . . . . .3.05.14 Cast Iron Flux-236 F . . . . . . . . . Cold Repair Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . .3.06.01 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.06.02 Typical application areas . . . . .3.06.03 How do Po